Cobol Engineering is the company that hired Dom, Arthur, and Nash to extract Proclus Global's expansion plan from first chief engineer Kaneda's, and then Saito's mind. The company is run by Woodruff.
When the plan to extract from Saito fails, they put a large bounty on Cobb's head and send thugs after him when he comes to Mombasa. Cobol Engineering has so much power in Mombasa that Eames says "they pretty much own [it]." In the midst of Nash's betrayal to Dom and Arthur, Saito leaves the architect to the mercy of Cobol when Dom rejects the opportunity to take revenge on Nash for his treachery.